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Parkinson's disease (PD)

Parkinson's disease (PD)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly after Alzheimer’s disease, affecting 1-2% of individuals aged ≥ 65 years worldwide. It is estimated that more than four million people in the industrialized countries suffer from PD. The prevalence of the PD market is expected to grow in the next years due to the increase in the global population and advancements in healthcare that contribute to an aging population at increased risk for PD. The diagnosis of PD is mainly based on observational criteria of muscular rigidity, resting tremor, or postural instability in combination with bradykinesia. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more severe. L-dopa remains as the most effective treatment for PD, and over 75% of the patients with PD receive L-dopa. However, long-term treatment with L-dopa leads to seriously debilitating motor fluctuations, i.e. phases of normal functioning (ON-time) and decreased functioning (OFF-time). Therefore, as the disease progresses, additional medications are added on to L-dopa to help with management of these motor fluctuations.  

References:

https://www.michaeljfox.org

BMC Oertel. European Handbook of Neurological Management, Vol1, Chapter 14 & 15, 2011. 

Useful Links

  • European Parkinson's Disease Association
  • American Parkinson Disease Association
  • National Parkinson Foundation 
  • Parkinson's Disease Foundation